Hack Your Health: The Secrets of Your Gut (2024)

Curious minds want to know... documentary movie collection.

Moderator: Maskath3

Watch Docus Amazon   Docus Merchandise

Documentary movie collection.
Post Reply

Hack Your Health: The Secrets of Your Gut (2024)

Post by bunniefuu »

[birds chirping]

[gentle music playing]

[woman] As humans, we've discovered

so many new things on this planet.

We've even flown to the moon.

But hardly anyone has really adventured

into their own gut.

We feel a lot of shame about our gut.

But it influences

so much about our health.

About how we feel,

if we are overweight or not,

what kind of diseases we can get,

how our immune system is being trained,

and, really with that,

the course of our lives.

["Gut Feeling" by Devo playing]

The nation got a report card

on obesity today, and the country flunked.

- [reporter 1] Rates of colorectal cancer...

- [reporter 2] Heart disease...

- [reporter 3] Irritable bowel syndrome...

- [reporter 4] Increase in autism...

[reporter 5] ...depression, anxiety

are skyrocketing.

[woman 1] What is healthy?

Why is eating painful?

[man] What changes

do I need to do to get healthy?

Why's it so hard for me to lose weight?

[woman 2] How do I still not know

what's right for my body?

[in Japanese] How do I fix my gut?

[in English] Do I have to spend

$100 a month on supplements?


[Giulia] There's a lot of noise

thrown at us.

[blender whirs]

Is it diet?

Is it carbohydrates? Is it no diet?

- And if you just look at...

- [all]...the gut...

...all this gets much easier to understand.

[man] We really just think about our gut

as a place where our poop comes from.

But it turns out to be

the center of a biomedical revolution.

[microbes cheering]

["Gut Feeling" continues]

[man] Diseases like anxiety,

and depression, cancer,

autism, Parkinson's

are all related to the gut.

[microbes] Huh?

This is new science, tip of the iceberg.

There's another 97% left to discover.

I've got a gut feeling

We're getting to the point where

we can make a more precise definition

about what you should eat.

I've got a gut feeling, feeling

The gut is flexible. It really changes

when we change the way we eat.

And once we've realized that,

everything changes.

[music ends]

[Giulia] Until I was 16 or 17,

I was just as confused by my gut

as everyone else.

[pensive music playing]

[Giulia] I couldn't deal with lactose.

I had a skin disease.

I was suddenly chubby as a child,

although there was

no apparent reason for it.

And so I read a lot about the gut,

and I realized that

when you really look at the organ,

you find so many of those answers.

One morning, my roommate

came into the kitchen and asked me,

"Giulia, you love the gut.

You talk about it all the time." [laughs]

"How does pooping work?"

And I had no idea.

So, I went up to my room,

and I looked in, like, three books,

and when I found out, I was like, "What?"

"Even this part is really cool about it."

There's nothing to shy away from, really.

All of it is cool.

[doctor speaking German]

[Giulia] We feel guilty and shame a lot

when it comes to our gut.

And it's completely crazy

when you think about it,

'cause this is the organ

that keeps you alive.

And as soon as you just know a few facts,

you feel a lot of respect for it.

Science can help us navigate

the questions about our health.

I remember when I did this the first time

with Professor Krammer, and he just said,

"See? Everybody looks the same inside."

We start with the esophagus.

It'll transport food to the stomach,

which passes it on to the small intestine.

What's left goes to the large intestine,

the colon.

And whatever we really don't need

goes out of the butthole.

And then we're done.

Gut science has been the hottest area

in all of biomedicine

for the last decade or more.

It is the missing part of the puzzle.

Our gut affects our whole body.

It can even affect

certain conditions in the brain.


[John] We've known for hundreds of years

that this is so important.

All we have to do is look to our language.

When we're disappointed, we're gutted.

When we're brave, we make gutsy moves.

When we have... we're nervous,

we have butterflies in our tummy.

The gut really is the second brain.


And from an evolutionary perspective,

our brains have never existed

without signals coming from the gut.

I'm being swallowed by my gut.

I mean, you know,

it's the gut fights back.

This whole field

is disrupting modern medicine.

[serene music playing]

[Giulia] This is an exhibit

that's based on a book

that my sister and I did about the gut.

And the purpose of it

is to just turn the inside out.

[upbeat ethereal music playing]


This is probably better.


[laughing] This is much more accurate,

actually, when you look at it like this.

The intestinal tract,

it's not a straight thing.

It's a bit, you know,

crooked here, crooked there.

The stomach, for example,

it goes like this.

So on top of it, there's an air bubble.

So when you really have a lot of air

in your stomach,

and you want to get it out,

lay on your left side

because then the air bubble

actually can go out quite nicely.

- [display belches]

- [laughs]

Whee! [laughs]

And then if I were a food particle,

and I would arrive at the small intestine,

then all these folds and villi

would stick out,

and I would be like, "Ah!"

And I could be, like, digested

and be taken up into the blood.

What's interesting is that

we can't digest on our own.

We need microbes

in order to do that properly.

The tiniest virus

works with the small bacteria,

works with a much larger yeast,

works with a super big human,

and this is what we call the microbiome.

[microbes chittering]

[Giulia] Most people think

that bacteria are bad,

but, actually, 99% of them

don't do anything to us,

and some can even help us.

[microbes chittering]

Some bacteria have more important roles

than we could have imagined.

If we let them live on us,

they'll actually lend us their skills.

They help with digesting our food.

[microbe] Yummy!

They help to quiet inflammation

and make the immune system less likely

to cause autoimmune disease.

[man] Approximately 70%

of our immune system lives in our gut.

Bacteria train that immune system

to respond to bad organisms

that might have a consequence on health.


They help produce chemicals

which we can't.

[woman] Microbes can shape our hormones,

and they can make us feel hungry or full.

They can be communicating with the brain.

They're communicating with other organs.

They shape our brain

early in life and as we get older.

- [beeping]

- [electricity crackling]

[John] If you looked at the genes

in and on our bodies,

we would be more than 99% microbial.

[Giulia] We oftentimes believe that

our human genes determine our health,

but now we know that the microbiome

is very central to being obese,

being depressed, having allergies,

or how stressed or relaxed you'll feel.

We don't know how big is the part

that it plays in these entities.

For some people,

it might be really relevant,

and for others, it might be smaller.

[male producer] Take one.

[laughs] Thank you.


[John] We may not want to admit it,

but we all have problems with our gut

from time to time.

[Jack] People differ

in their relationship to food,

in their diseases,

in their response to medication,

in their overall life history.

[Maya] If I eat pretty much anything

that's not vegetables,

I start getting stomach pains,

which makes my job incredibly difficult.

[Daniell] You realize

how much you took for granted.

Like something as simple

as being able to poop.

I've had to learn

to become grateful for the tiniest things.

[Kimmie] I've tried

to control my weight all kind of ways,

but I would lose a lot,

and I would gain

a whole lot more. [chuckles]

[Kobi, in Japanese]

I hear people say they're hungry,

and they look very happy

after they've eaten.

I'm jealous of those people

because I no longer feel hunger.

[Jack, in English] We're trying

to understand what's going on

with all this variance

that makes people different.

We think the microbiome is key to that.

[microbes chittering]

In order for us

to understand our differences,

we have to first look at

where our microbes come from.

[microbes chittering]

[woman] You're born

largely without microbes.

Microbes colonize you

once you enter the world.

[baby cooing]

[Giulia] When we're born, this is really

the moment where it tips off everything.

[Erica] When a baby is born vaginally,

they're being exposed

to the bacteria in the mom's vag*na.

[Giulia] And then, when you come out,

the face is going down

in the direction to the butt.

You also get some gut bacteria

because you're so close by the butt

that you already get

your first microbial colonists.

And they start making this

a habitable place to live

for other microbes.

[uplifting ethereal music playing]

[microbes chittering]

[Giulia] We shape our microbiome

by all the little choices and adventures

we have in our life.

Whoever we kiss, what we put

in our mouth, where we travel.

[Annie] The food you eat,

the relationships you have

with your siblings,

whether you have pets, exercise, stress,

your experiences when you were a child,

whether you had adversity or not.

[Jack] Because of this,

everybody has a unique microbiome.

[Giulia] So it's sort of this collection

of microbial memories.

[man] Knowing that the microbiome could be

the key to health is really exciting,

because you can't change your genes,

but all of us have the ability

to change our own microbes

through simple changes

to our diet and our lifestyle.

[upbeat music playing]

Perfectly greasy. Oh my God.

The industrialized microbiome

is probably pretty unhealthy

and may be pushing us towards a lot

of our most common and serious diseases.

[stomach gurgling]

That could result

in a lot of these chronic diseases

that are very, very prevalent,

like obesity, diabetes,

hypertension, food allergies.

So, I think the way we think

about disease needs to change.

- [woman gasps]

- [man gulps]

[Justin] Big changes to our environment,

Western diet,

the way babies are born, C-sections,

baby formula,

sanitation, antibiotics

all lead to decreased

microbiome diversity.

Exactly what we see

in the industrialized microbiome.

I was a C-section baby,

who was breastfed for...

I'm not entirely sure for how long.

I'm always running

for my children or my job,

so I'm always super stressed out.

Five-time Nathan's Famous champion,

Takeru Kobayashi!

[Kobi, in Japanese] I don't think

there's anything healthy

about what I do. [laughs]

I wonder what damage I've done to my body.

[Homer gulps]

[Maya, in English]

It does make me kind of wonder

how that affects your health

and what that does to your microbiome.

[microbes chittering]

[Justin] We've lost hundreds of species

in our gut.

They've gone extinct.

And what we're realizing now

is that the most important factors

of determining the health

of this microbial community is your diet.

There are some major deficiencies

in the typical American diet,

even the typical American diet

that's healthy.

[pensive music playing]

Currently in the States,

nearly 60% of all the calories eaten

are ultra-processed food.

The food is ultra-refined.

It's been stripped of all its nutrients

of the original natural ingredients,

and then they add back in

all types of chemicals

and large amounts of sugars.

But people are confused about what to eat

because it's made to look healthy

by adding labels on the packet

that say this is low-cal

and therefore healthy,

or this has extra vitamins.

When you look at

some of these labels in detail,

really hard to work out

what's actually inside them.

That's actually not too bad,

that one. [laughs]

[director] It's not?

I looked at it. It has tons of sugar.

[Tim] Does it? I couldn't see.

It's 30% sugar. Yep.

Just looking at this, it's fiber-packed,

it's got fruit and nuts, it's got

dark chocolate, it's got sea salt.

This to me, first look,

it looks pretty good.

It's only when you

look into the ingredients,

you see, "Oh! That is far too sugary."

[chuckling] You... You see? I was fooled.

[Maya] It's hard to navigate

what you should be eating

because you go to the supermarket,

and the lists of powders and tonics

and things that you need just grows.

[reporter 1] Can chlorophyll

prevent cancer?

[reporter 2] Medicinal mushrooms...

- [reporter 3] Red wine's healthy...

- [reporter 4] Probiotics for your vag*na.

[reporters overlapping]

Spirulina. Chocolate.

Collagen. Blueberry extract. Coffee!

So, yeah. I find the food world

and wellness culture incredibly confusing.

[young Maya in video]

Today we're gonna make teriyaki chicken.

We have... We have garlic, ginger, sugar,

soy sauce, sesame oil, and onions.

- First, you...

- You have great confidence, I have to say.

- I was a confident cook when I was four.

- [laughing]

Some soy sauce, a lot of ginger because

we can't get enough of that ginger.

All of the garlic,

because we never can get enough

of garlic either.

Cooking and food is truly in my blood,

and it's something

I've been doing since I was really little.

And now it's my passion

and my art and my career.

I received my first Michelin star

when I was 23.

I won Eater's Hottest Chef.

So ridiculous that that was even a thing.

But you do feel the need

to cultivate this image

of the goth, cute pastry chef

with tattoos.

There was just a massive amount

of pressure on me,

and so then I kind of

just let it get out of control.

[gentle music playing]

[Maya] I was really anorexic

for a long time.

But now, my eating disorder

has kind of shifted to orthorexia,

where I'm very obsessed with wellness

and maximizing your nutrition.

So this is, yeah, like,

guarana, suma, reishi, lion's mane,

Cordyceps, the spirulina,

Chlorella, moringa.

Basically, I eat a lot of vegetables

and then supplement it

with potions and powders

and things that the Internet tells me

that I probably need.

I have taken so many things out of my diet

and tried to reintroduce,

you know, "fun foods."

But when I eat sugar,

pork, butter, things like that,

then I feel bloated,

and I feel like I have to throw up

for three, four days afterwards.

Which is really hard because I am trying

to fix my relationship with food.

And then when it feels like

your body is betraying you,

it's, um...

It's hard to... to get past that.

[gentle music continues]

[Maya] I think ultimately

I would really love to know

what I should be eating,

or what I shouldn't be eating,

and what healthy is for me, specifically.

[Giulia] When my patients ask me,

"What makes a microbiome healthy?"

I like to compare it to a forest.

You can't put a few healthy plants in it

and expect everything to change.

A forest needs a healthy balance

where the plants and the life can be okay

with the circumstances,

with the light, with the water,

with the nutrients from the soil

and function together.

Our gut bacteria,

they want just a few grams of fiber

from vegetables and fruits every day,

and it's weird

that it's so hard for us to manage this.

[Justin] Current recommendations

in the United States suggest

that we should be eating

28 to 40 grams of dietary fiber per day.

And we're only eating

15 grams in the average American diet.

The field of microbiome science

is realizing

that we probably should be eating

in excess of 50 grams per day.

[in Japanese] How much fiber

is in one hot dog?

[scoffs] What? Zero grams!


[Tim, in English] Whether you have meat

on your plate or not...

You can be vegan, non-vegan.

Doesn't matter.

The key is getting the diversity

of plants in all their forms,

as many as you can

on your plate to feed your microbes.

Why should I eat my veggies? You know?

I'm a big fan of understanding this.

Of course, there are many nutrients in it,

and not so many bad things

that are in processed foods.

But also if the front part

of your body was see-through,

you could actually see digestion,

and you would be able to very easily see

the difference

between processed foods and vegetables.

With processed foods, you could see

that within the first centimeters

of the small intestine,

it's basically all taken up in the blood.

There's a surge of sugar

in the bloodstream,

and we have to pack it

in the cells really fast.

It's, like, almost a stressful event,

actually, for the body,

because, "Where should I put

all this sugar?" You know?

It has to really push it everywhere.

But with the fiber

that we have in vegetables,

it's just more stable.

It would be taken up a little bit,

go further,

be taken up a little bit, go further.

It would even land in the colon

and would be a good source of food

for the microbes there.

[microbe] Delicious!

[Giulia] So it's

a completely different mode of digesting.

You know,

like a long walk instead of sprinting.

If a gut microbiome is very diverse,

has many different kinds of bacteria,

it'll just have

this bouquet of possibilities

to react to what life throws at us.

[tense music playing]

[upbeat, quirky 1960's music playing]

[announcer] Kobayashi continues

to just pound 'em down.

Putting on a clinic.

Look at him go. He's moving his arms and...

[John] So what happens if we don't eat

enough fiber to feed these microbes?

[announcer] Takeru Kobayashi!

If you're not feeding

your gut microbes dietary fiber,

your gut microbes will start eating you.

[microbes chittering]

[Giulia] All these microbes are great.

They help your body a lot.

But they're also microbes.

So there has to be a friendly border

of respect, and this is produced by mucus.

Mucus is a good way of doing that

because it's also a bit permeable,

so nutrients and everything

can come through,

but the microbes

are being held a little bit distant.

[Justin] Well, it turns out

if you stop eating dietary fiber...

[microbe] No! No! No!

[Justin]...the gut microbes

still need to eat something,

so they will start eating

that mucus lining as a backup food source.

And gradually, over time,

they'll deplete that mucus lining.

Your bacteria are going

to places in the body

where they're not supposed to go.

[Giulia] And when immune cells

that reside there see that,

- they go into a defense mode.

- [horn sounding]


[Giulia] And this can cause

a battle of inflammation,

and it can change

the microbial composition of your gut.

And that is one of the things

that can lead to many diseases

like inflammatory bowel disease,

or some types of irritable bowel syndrome.

[foreboding music playing]


[Giulia] When we started

to explore chronic inflammatory diseases,

scientists had this thought of,

can we find the microbe

or the microbial community

that makes this disease

or creates that feeling that's bad?

But now when we think about

how this ecosystem interacts,

we have this newer approach

where we also ask ourselves

if we are missing certain bacteria

that are usually there to protect us.

[chainsaw running]

My name is Daniell Koepke,

and I am a clinical psychology

doctoral student.

It's really hard for me to remember

what it was like to eat food

before it became associated

with anxiety and pain and discomfort.

When I was in undergrad,

I had a pretty bad diet.

And that diet, the high-sugar foods

and the absence

of more fruits and vegetables,

led to IBS-like symptoms.

So I was experiencing indigestion,

stabbing pains from trapped gas,

constipation, not being able

to go to the bathroom at all.

When you have multiple gut symptoms

that can't be easily put into a box,

a lot of doctors don't know what to do.

[video game sound effects]

[Daniell] Antibiotics are given out

like candy.

"You don't feel good

or think you might have this thing?"

"Here. Take some antibiotics."

In the last five years, I've been on

six rounds of antibiotics in a year.


I lost a lot of weight

when I started getting sick

and had to cut all of these things

out of my diet.

I don't know

how many things I can eat now,

but it's probably

anywhere between 10 and 15.

It feels really limiting,

and I often feel really deprived.

So I have to take these supplements

to maintain my baseline functioning.

These are even more supplements

that... [chuckles wryly]

...I've taken in the past

that no longer work. Um...

I know that pills aren't the answer,

but I feel stuck because I don't know

how to grow these new bacteria that I need

when I can't eat a lot of these foods, uh,

that are required

to, like, have a healthy gut microbiome.

[somber music playing]

[Giulia] If we cut foods out of our diet,

we'll change our microbes drastically,

because who can live there

if you don't feed them?

[sighs sadly]

[Giulia] And if we want

to reintroduce fiber,

we'll have a far more difficult time.

[microbes gagging]

[Giulia] So people who suddenly

eat healthy again will be bloated,

will have some stomach pain.

So it's a process of changing their diet,

but not too drastically,

in a way that all the microbes

in the gut can adjust.

[Maya] Since I've had

such a restrictive diet,

I wonder was I also starving

the microbes in my body at the same time?

And has that changed

how my body can process foods,

and does that mean, like, my future,

I'm always going to have issues

with eating something,

or is it partially a mental block?

I'm not really sure... [chuckles]

...what's going on.

It's something that I would love

to actually learn more about.

Oh. Cool.

[phones dinging, beeping]

- [engine roars]

- [brakes screech]

[doorbell rings]

[upbeat synth music playing]

[Maya] It's like Christmas.

[in Japanese] I wonder what this is.

[in English] Oh no.


It's weird. All of a sudden,

I don't care about being healthy anymore.

"Collect one scoop of solid stool..."


"...or four scoops of liquid..." Ooh!

"...into tube."

"Mix well."

It's like the world's grossest recipe.

[in Japanese] Ooh! This is like a spoon.

I guess you do this.

[Maya, in English]

I've always found the idea

of gut testing really fascinating.

It would be awesome if I could understand

what's happening in my own body.

[Kimmie] I've tried

so many different things to lose weight.

Hopefully, this might be the thing for me.

[Kobi, in Japanese] I want the test

to tell me why I don't have an appetite.

And about the relationship

between my organs and eating.

[Giulia, in English] I've never had

my gut microbiome tested.

I don't think, at this point of time,

it makes a lot of sense.

All the things you can do

to have a healthy gut,

eating differently,

treating your gut nicer,

you can do them

without having an analysis first.

[toilet flushes]

But if you just want to do

a fun experiment, go ahead.

And for research, it's a great tool.

[Jack] At the beginning

of microbiome science,

we were really our own guinea pigs.

So myself and my colleagues

were collecting our own poop

and sticking it in freezers.

So you take a little piece of used

toilet paper, you color the piece you swab

with a little bit of poop,

make it a bit brown,

then we extract the DNA from that.

But now we've expanded

to thousands of thousands of samples

from thousands of people

around the United States

and, indeed, around the world now.

If you gave me your microbiome sample,

I wouldn't be able to tell you

a hell of a lot

about how sick or healthy you are.

I can only do that by comparing you

to a really large group of people

and seeing how you fit.

Does your microbiome

look like people who have asthma?

Do you have asthma?

Does your microbiome

look like people who are obese?

Are you obese?

If that's true,

then I can find a signature,

which can help me unpin that.

[man] Each teaspoon of stool contains

terabytes and terabytes of information

encoded in the DNA of the microbes.

So each dot on the screen represents

all the complexity of the microbiome

of one person distilled

just down to one point.

So what this display shows you

is what kinds of microbes

are shared between samples.

So two samples that are close together

are ones that have

very similar microbial communities,

whereas samples that are far apart

have entirely distinct communities

from one another.

[Justin] When we started

studying the gut microbiome,

the field assumed

that if we looked at the gut microbiome

of healthy Americans,

we would get a good picture

of what a healthy microbiome is.

This visualization shows

the differences between microbes

of the industrialized world

down at the bottom,

versus the less industrial world

up on the top there.

What you can see so clearly is how,

in the non-industrialized microbiome,

you have more diversity.

[Aashish] So if we only focus

on the Western world,

then we are not getting a full picture

of what a healthy gut microbiome

composition looks like,

or looked like in the past.

[in Nepali] It's difficult to walk here.

[in English] We're going

to traditional communities

and asking people

to donate their... their... their poop.

- Namaste.

- Namaste.

[Aashish and woman speaking Nepali]

[Aashish, in English]

When we go to communities

and say "Can we collect your poop?"

Most of the time people are like,

"Oh no, no, no. Poop? No. Poop, no."

But when I explain to them what I'm doing,

they're like, "Sure. Why not?"

[toilet flushing]

[Justin] It turns out that

the gut microbiome of rural populations

have hundreds of more species

that we just don't see

in the industrialized gut microbiome.

By studying populations that are

still practicing traditional lives,

we will begin to understand

what microbes have been lost

from industrial populations,

and how this is influencing

our overall health.

[video call ringing, connects]

We ready? [laughs]

Hi, Maya. Nice to meet you.

So would you like

to discuss your results now?

Sure. Yeah.

What we found in our studies

is that overall, you're pretty healthy.

It's definitely above average.

All those vegetables you're eating

every week have not gone to waste.

[chuckles] Cool.

You know, I've also struggled with having

a disordered relationship with eating.

I've always been very,

kind of, restrictive in my diet.

So, Maya, yeah,

many people think like you,

that just having

a really healthy kale salad every day

is going to keep them healthy.

That's not as healthy as we thought.

The more diversity you consume,

the more rich your microbiome will be,

the more species of bacteria

that will be present inside your gut.

[Tim] And that does allow you to deal with

allergies and intolerances better.

- Yeah.

- It's not about restricting things.

It's about enlarging your world of foods

that are possible for you to eat.

Well, I think part of the problem is that

I have some kind of, like, mental blocks

for some foods, like pork,

and occasionally my stomach

just reacts really poorly to it.

Is that something that I can overcome,

or is it just I'm never gonna eat bacon

ever again in my entire life?

Oh! Don't say that. Sounds horrible.


- Yeah. It's a struggle, right?

- Yeah.

We do think to alleviate it,

introducing these things

in very small doses, microdosing,

and then building it up over time

into large doses can play a role.

Try small amounts,

you know, bring them into your diet.

And if you do that gradually over months,

you might start to regain the ability

to eat a much wider range of foods.

I do really love the idea

of microdosing chips, though.

Oh man. So do I now.

[laughing] Yeah. Yay, that's so exciting.

[voice breaking] I'm getting emotional

thinking about it. I'm sorry.

[uplifting music playing]

But yeah, it's...

it's been a really long, hard road.

I'm really excited by the idea

of microdosing potato chips.

You know, just changing my diet

a little bit at a time.

And it's been fun.

I mean, I eat, like,

three potato chips a day sometimes,

and I don't feel bad.

It does make me wonder

if I'm eating the right things,

or is it, something's changing chemically

in my brain?

[chips crunching]

- [buzzer sounds]

- [electricity crackles]

[Kimmie] According to the world

and all these graphs and charts,

because of my height and my weight,

I'm considered morbidly obese.

I tried to control my weight before.

I went and got

this expensive gym membership.

I've tried diets.

I've tried the weight loss medicine,

and it didn't work for me.

I would lose a lot of weight at first,

and then it just comes right back.

Diabetes runs in my family.

So even though I'm healthy now,

I wanna lose weight before any of that,

you know, onsets in my life.

I wanna be here

as long as I can for my kids.

Society, you know,

makes women feel less than

because they're larger,

and I'm not looking to be skinny

or 120 pounds, just more healthy.

I'm just gonna be this plus-size diva

till the end.

I'm feeling myself

Living it up, straight to the top

I'm flexin', I'm flexin'...

[motorcycle engine revs]

[tire screeching]

[Kimmie] You can be positive

in the body that you're in,

but also be conscious of your health

because you ultimately need that.


I'm flexin', flexin'...

[Kimmie] So my question about eating is,

what in the world are y'all eating

that I'm not eating

that cause y'all to lose weight

and not me? [laughing]

[tire screeching]

[music fades out]

[doctor] As a physician,

when we try to explain to our patients

why they're having

such a hard time losing weight,

we have a tendency of blaming

the individuals, blaming the patients.

[comical music playing]

[Eran Elinav] The population

has been doing what we were recommending

for many decades,

yet the obesity epidemic

has not slowed down or reversed.

[all chomp]

[all gobbling]

[man] The word "diet" is really confusing.

Low-fat versus low-carb.

Most people understand it

to be really a sprint that I'm gonna do

for some period of time to lose weight,

and then I can go back

to my previous patterns

of eating whatever I want to eat.

[comical munching]

[Eran Segal] But a diet, it's really about

changing your lifestyle for life.

Another reason why diets don't work is

that they really focus on the wrong thing.

And in that sense,

they actually could be misdirecting us.

When we put these calorie labels on boxes,

we think, "Okay,

this is the amount of energy

that we will all extract

if we ate that same food."

But of course, that is not true.

[playful music playing]

[Eran Elinav] If you would give

an identical apple

to three different people,

each of these individuals would show

a different response to the same apple.

You know I can't eat this, right? [laughs]

[Eran Segal] They will each process it

in a different way.

They will each extract

different nutrients from it.

They will each extract

different amounts of energies.

[Kimmie] You go your whole life thinking,

"Okay, it's calories."

"Me and you can eat the same thing,

and we should both have

the same results, ultimately,"

and that's just not what it is.


So, rather than measuring the apple,

one needs to start measuring

the people who eat the apple.

[Eran Segal] Now we focus

on blood glucose levels

in the two hours after you eat a meal

because we understand

that your blood sugar levels after a meal

are directly connected

to weight loss and weight gain,

and also to the development

of multiple diseases.

[woman] Good, good, good.

Some cream cheese.

[Tim] I ought to check

my sugar levels this morning.

[Veronique] Especially after that.

Let's see if I b*at you.

Oh my God, you're going up really fast.

- Definitely b*at you this time.

- [Veronique laughs] Yeah.

[Tim] Bagels have that effect on me.

[Veronique] That's okay for me.

[Eran Segal] One of the seminal works

in the field of microbiome

was a study led by Jeff Gordon

in which he took identical twins,

but one twin was obese,

and the other was lean,

and he transplanted

the gut bacteria from the obese twin

and the lean twin into mice.

The mice that received the bacteria

from the obese twin

gained more weight on the same food

as compared to mice

who received the bacteria

of the lean twin.

[Jack] And that's helping us to understand

why some people experience more difficulty

losing weight.

For some people,

you lose weight, put on weight,

lose weight, put on more weight,

lose weight, put on even more weight,

and it keeps going up.

We think the microbiome is key to that.

You may have to go on a diet

for 9 to 12 months

to reshape the ecosystem,

to prevent the weight

from coming back with a vengeance

when you start eating a hamburger again.

[pensive music playing]

[Eran Segal] Using the microbiome data

that we collected from individuals,

we can start to predict

which foods are the best for each person.

At least as far as blood sugar levels go.

[Maya] Oysters, that's good.

Can't have eggplant sandwiches,

that's bad.

For somebody like me

where obsession is an issue... [laughs]

...having scores

is not necessarily helpful for me.

[in Japanese]

We should put hot dogs in there.

The hot dog and bun

on its own is rated yellow.

- But that's not too bad, right?

- It's not too bad, but also not good.

But it's better

when it's with cheese and avocado.

[Kobi] Oh, I like avocado.

It's amazing.

The more toppings

you add to it, the better.

[Kimmie, in English]

Oh my God. Pork tenderloin.

So you mean to tell me pork is good?

Nobody better not tell me nothing else.

[video call ringing, connects]

Hi, Kimmie!

Hi, Annie!

- Hi, Kimmie.

- [Kimmie] Hi, Eran.

You know, you had asked before, like,

why is it that

when you try to lose weight, you can't.

So when we looked at your microbiome,

we saw that you had

a less diverse microbiome.

In particular, we noticed

a specific type of bacteria,

it's known as Prevotella, you had zero.

Oh my goodness.

So people who have

that pattern of no Prevotella

have a hard time losing weight.

Then the other thing we found

was that there were

three other specific bacteria in your gut

that were in low amounts.

They're associated with the production

of a specific type of gut hormone

that makes you feel full.

It could be why you're always hungry.

But it's never as simple as one bacteria,

because no bacteria acts alone.

So you really need to understand

how they act within an ecosystem,

which is why we analyze

the microbiome as a whole.

Does that make sense?

Absolutely. I mean,

I'm kind of amazed, actually.

I mean, just to be able to find out

all those different things about myself,

simply from testing poop.


But I don't know.

I guess it just seems so difficult.

Why does it seem like... like I'm stuck?

- Am I stuck?

- Yeah. No, you're not... you're not stuck.

So, the good thing is you got here,

but you can also get out.

You really want to do,

I would say, a lifestyle change

where you really change your food,

such that it better matches

your good bacteria.

Oh yeah.

[Eran Segal] And we might be able to find

something that is enjoyable,

something that could be sustained

for a long period of time,

and would also be good for you.

You know, we talked about ABCs,

"always be counting,"

not calories,

but always be counting

the number of fruits and vegetables

that you have per week.

Between 20 and 30

is usually considered good.


[Kimmie] It definitely clears things up

a little more.

Different bacteria,

you know, different lifestyles,

just different things happening

for different people at different times

just creates different outcomes.

My life is pretty hectic.

I'm responsible for a lot of people.

I have a sick mom

that I'm constantly taking care of.

I'm a single mom

to three beautiful children.

My baby boy, he's autistic,

so I'm always teaching him.

[all chattering indistinctly]

[Kimmie] Eating in a household

with different age groups

that all want different things,

you gotta cook for you,

and then you gotta cook for them, and...

It can be difficult,

and it can be expensive.

So getting my kids on board

with one meal that everybody likes,

that's my project.


[in Japanese] I'm sure

that I've eaten 10,000 hot dogs

since the beginning of my career.

[rock music playing]

[whistle blows]

[rock music continues]

[whistle blows]

[rock music ends]

I am Japanese,

but I've eaten like an American.

I think that's what's damaged my body.

[pensive music playing]

[man] Wow, this aroma.

[Maggie] This is real Japanese food, huh?

So beautiful.

[in English] So beautiful.

- Mmm!

- [man speaking Japanese]

Is competitive eating

damaging your stomach?

When we go out together,

I mean, the rest of us

eat more than you do.

[Maggie] Yeah, it's true.

Kobi thinks he might be broken.

He doesn't feel hungry or full.

- He doesn't feel those things at all.

- [man] Oh really?

There are times when he realizes that

he hasn't eaten anything in three days.

[man] It's that bad, really?

I feel like the more you eat,

especially junk food,

the more you damage your body.


[man 2 speaking indistinctly]

Ever since I started this career,

I've wondered

what damage I've done to my body.

I want to know how it is damaging

my brain and nervous system.

[in English] Earlier, I think

I had this image of myself,

like, I'm this head and brain, and rest,

and this is how I go about life.

My feelings and everything,

my thoughts, are just produced up here.

And this is a bit silly,

and it reminds me even about the way

my little nephew draws people.

[chuckling] It's just this head

with two little feet on it.

And we now know that the gut

is an important adviser to the brain.

It'll collect this information,

send it up to the brain,

and it'll become a part of how we feel.

So we all know our first brain up here,

but we have a second brain

in here within our tummies.

And there are more nerves

in this second brain

than there is in our spinal cord.

The gut-brain axis is

the two-way street of communication

between what's going on in our bellies

and what's going on in our brains.

[Annie] Think of the brain

and the gut as BFFs.

So if either one is not working,

the other eventually is gonna follow suit.

It may be what allows us

to enjoy the food we eat,

to tell us what to eat, when to eat,

and it's not only

that the microbes could affect your brain,

but it's the food you take that can affect

the microbes that can affect your brain.

[uplifting music playing]

[John] So, today we're

at the English Market here in Ireland,

and this is where I go shopping

on a Saturday.

You come to the market with a list.

[chuckling] But I end up

throwing it out every time.

The smell, the colors,

everything here, you're drawn to,

but your gut is also drawing you

to things maybe it shouldn't.

Our food choices, you know, we think

about it all being driven by our brain,

but what if it's actually

the signals from our gut

that are really pulling the strings?

Now, this is what my microbes really love,

and I have to have this internal struggle

because it's just a recipe

for me to gain weight.

[Giulia] How hungry you feel,

how much you want to eat something,

could come from a tiny bacterial

population in your gut being like,

"I really would like to eat those fries,"

or something, you know?

You eat a lot of sugar,

you get sugar-loving bugs.

You eat a lot of fat,

you get fat-loving bugs.

So when I go to China,

and I'm not consuming so much sugary food

because there's very little sugar

in the Chinese diet,

I completely lose my desire

to eat chocolate, for example.

Normally, in North America,

I'm craving chocolate every single day.

- [John] Morning.

- [woman] Morning.

- How are you?

- [woman] Good, and you?

Good, good.


Ah! [chuckles]

Today, my microbes win,

so it's gonna be the chocolate

that we're gonna go with.

[Maya] I get cravings a lot.

Sometimes, literally,

the only thing that sounds good

is, like, a super rare steak.

I kind of try to just push it

into the back of my mind and ignore it,

but I'm trying to listen to my body more.

My body craves ice cream

or sweets or hamburgers.

[sighs heavily]

I really wish I could eat this.

I love seafood.

I try to eat as much seafood as possible.

[in Japanese] I used to crave

cakes and curry when I was little.

I don't feel that joy

about eating anymore.

[Giulia, in English]

Digestion was very much likely

the first form of thinking

that animals developed.

It was there so that the nerves

could tell the quality of the food,

how the surrounding tissue was doing,

the immune cells that were passing by.

And only after that worked really well,

it was like a nice add-on

to also have this brain up there

that can coordinate senses.

[woman] Hi, Kimmie, we're ready for you

if you wanna come on back.

[Kobi, in Japanese]

I'm going to get my MRI done today.

I'm a little worried.

But I'm looking forward to understanding

what's going on in my body.

[Kimmie, in English]

I'm still a little confused.

I'm just trying

to figure out how my body works,

so moving forward, I can be a better me.

[woman] All right, Kimmie.

How you doing in there?

[Kimmie] Good.

[woman] We're gonna go ahead

and put up a slideshow for you

of a bunch of pictures.

And we're just gonna ask you to watch it

like you would watch TV or a movie, okay?

[Kimmie] Okay.

[Annie] What we're looking at

is activity in the brain.

Seeing how Kimmie and Kobi respond

to a stimulus. In this case, food cues.

We have high-calorie sweet foods,

or high-fat, high-calorie savory foods.

And what we see with Kimmie's brain

is that when Kimmie sees food,

the emotional part

of her brain gets activated,

but more importantly,

the ability to control

these emotional responses are diminished.

With Kobi's situation,

it's definitely more complex.

Hunger is a complicated process.

There are multiple systems involved.

The brain, the gut microbiome,


but also your mood,

your memories, your environment.

There are so many things

that are related to hunger,

and we need to think about the whole body.

[Jack] Doctors are divided up

into specialties

where they just focus on this one organ,

and they ignore

the entire rest of the body, essentially.

It's minimizing our understanding

of how everything is connected.

The beautiful thing about

the microbiome is it's everywhere,

and its effects are felt everywhere.

We have to think more holistically.

And so, one of the things

that I'm really interested in

is when we have co-occurrences

of gut problems with brain problems,

and it's very common.

It's very common

in autism, in Parkinson's disease,

but also in stress-related

psychiatric illnesses

like anxiety and depression.

And so, which came first

is always the question.

[Jack] In the last five or so years,

we found that people

with certain depression-like symptoms

are missing bacteria in their gut

that produce chemicals

which shape brain chemistry.

That changes how you feel.

And it can lead, we believe,

to the onset of depression-like symptoms.

[John] When you give a normal mouse

microbes from a healthy person

and give them the opportunity to explore,

they'll want to see bright areas

and be generally inquisitive.

Whereas if you give them

the microbes from a depressed individual,

they'll huddle into dark areas,

and they will develop

stress, anxiety, and depression.

[whimpering, crying]

[John] There was changes

in the chemicals involved in serotonin,

the mood molecule,

- in their gut and in their brain.

- [electricity crackling]

[Jack] When we added bacteria

into our animals

that's often missing

in people who are depressed,

it actually dampens down

that depression response.

So they may still have depression,

but they don't feel it as severely.

[mouse squeaking]

[Kobi, in Japanese] Yeah, it makes sense.

When I'm training for a competition,

I feel aggressive,

and I don't feel like

talking to other people.

It's scary to think that the brain and gut

are so closely related.

It makes me want to be more careful

with what I eat.

[rapid tapping]

[video game character grunts]

[Jack] That's really cool.

Ah, man. You're doing really well.

As a father with a son with autism

and another son with ADHD

and having depression in my family,

I've been very interested in seeing

if there's maybe a link

to disruptions in the microbiome.

And that's shaped my research career.

And I've gone after looking at

which bacteria might be playing a role.

We found that in many cases of autism,

there are children who have diarrhea

or severe constipation.

[Giulia] In other diseases in the brain,

like Parkinson's,

we often see an onset of constipation,

sometimes even decades before

the actual brain disease manifests.

To understand this connection,

we take bacteria from humans

with a certain disease like Parkinson's,

and put them in mice.

[Jack] When we add missing bacteria

into the mice, their symptoms improve.

[upbeat music playing]

[Jack] It's a natural thing.

Just naturally rebalancing that ecosystem

and that chemistry inside the body.

[upbeat music continues]

- [music ends]

- [applause]

And so, we're really starting to see

that the relationship,

our study of the body as a whole unit,

is essential

if we're really gonna get a handle

on some of these chronic conditions.

[video call ringing, connects]

Well, very nice to meet you, Kobi.

Hi, doctor.

- Hi, Kobi. Hi, Maggie.

- [Kobi] Nice to meet you.

[Annie] So I have some results.

We were excited to see that,

that your bacteria

actually looks pretty good.

[in Japanese] Wow.

That really surprises me.

[in English] So even though

the competitive eating,

you know, may have had an effect,

the fact that you eat

a normal healthy diet, Japanese diet,

it influenced your microbiome.

Because the bacteria in your microbiome

responds, like, within 24 hours of eating.


But when it comes to the loss of appetite,

it could be a combination of many things,

like the actual stomach stretching,

your hormones,

some sort of slight inflammation,

or also the speed of digestion.

- Just to name a few things.

- Okay.

But the other part is the head.

And usually, I am not a fan

of doctors telling people

it's in your head,

but when I looked at your brain scan,

everything was f*ring.

Basically, every area in the brain

that can have something to do

with eating, with food,

with feeling nauseous or full,

like, everything is on.

It's almost like it's confused.

[in Japanese] Okay,

I don't like the sound of that.

[in English] The only way

this made sense for me was

if everything has to work together

to suppress

so that you don't feel full,

so that you don't get disgusted

by more and more food.

You can see how far your body goes

for what you want,

even if it has to harm itself.

[speaking Japanese]

He said, "I know."

He said, "I'm already scared."

He's like,

"I don't know if my brain is okay."

Yeah, but it's not that something

is turned off, or gone, or broken.

It's all there. It's all turned on.

It's just wired differently maybe now.

Your brain is still trained

to think that you're competing

or eating those highly processed foods.

[Giulia] Here I think

the situation is very complex.

Something that would be interesting to try

- would be to learn to listen to the body.

- Yeah.

If it's just a smell,

or just sensing very basic things,

and just learning to feel it, sometimes.

[in Japanese] It's a long journey.

A long one indeed.

[in English] He said, "This is gonna be

a long journey though, right?"

[in Japanese] I overeat because

I am a competitive eater.

But ordinary people overeat too sometimes.

When you eat too much,

you don't savor the taste

or fully enjoy the smell of the food.

You ignore your body's signals,

like fullness.

[Giulia, in English] It starts early.

Many kids are raised telling them,

"Clean your plate. Eat the whole plate

'cause that's what good kids do."

So we learn to ignore our appetite,

but get accustomed

to just times where we eat.

We're on the phone the whole time,

or on the computer

with the brain and screen.

Reconnecting, it's really more about

just listening to your body.

[Kobi, in Japanese]

I hope to live a long and healthy life.

Good morning.

I've decided to retire

from competitive eating.

It's all I have done

for the last 20 years.

I am worried about

what my next step will bring,

but I'm also excited about my future.

I have mixed feelings.

But first,

I want to fix my brain and my gut.

[in English] We're actively working

to enhance the number

of different microbiome therapies

that are out there.

If your microbiome's damaged,

can we actually use poop to fix it?

This is very, very valuable,

more valuable than gold.

What would you say if a doctor told you

someone else's feces could save your life?

[reporter] A Fecal Microbial Transplant,

simply called FMT,

puts feces from someone else

into the body of an infected patient.

He offers a treatment through

colonoscopy, an enema, or pills.

Fecal microbiome transplant

is the first FDA-approved therapy

which involves the microbiome

that's available to clinicians today.

However, it's only allowed to be used

for one particular type of disease.

[reporter] C. diff. When bacteria inflames

the colon and causes extreme diarrhea.

[Jack] We take the bacterial community

from a healthy person,

just spray it

up inside the colon, literally,

in order to re-poop-ulate,

repopulate your gut bacteria inside there.

[reporter 2] It's a procedure

that has a 90% cure rate.

[reporter 3] Scientists are now trying

to figure out

if it can treat hundreds

of other conditions, mental and physical.

[Jack] With fecal microbiome transplants,

there is really compelling evidence,

but the science is still developing.

We're still working on

if it actually has benefit

in wider populations,

if the benefit is long-lasting.

[Drew] Here it is,

next to the food we're gonna eat later.

- [Daniell] Is it in the healthy range?

- [Drew] This is a good one.

[Daniell] I think for most people,

it would be scary

to do a fecal transplant,

especially when it's DIY.

I also think that most healthy people

don't know what it's like

to get to a place

where your quality of life is so low.

I felt like I had no other options.

[director] Is this love?

[Drew] Yes, true love.


The first time I did a fecal transplant,

I used my brother as a donor.

I slowly started gaining weight,

despite not changing my diet at all.

And I was able to go to the bathroom

for the first time in, like, three years

on my own.

But I started getting worse acne,

and my brother has a history

of hormonal acne.

And then I decided to use

my boyfriend as a donor.

He has no physical health conditions,

but he does have

some mental health issues.

I took my boyfriend's pills

for several months.

Stopped getting the acne.

But over time, I noticed

that my depression

was worse than it's ever been in my life.

I got whatever bacteria he normally has,

and it exacerbated

the depression that I already had.

I went back to using

my brother as a donor.

Within a week,

that depression completely went away.

[Drew] Going right in there...

with the ice cream.

There are risks with FMT.

[microbes chittering]

[John] When you get an FMT,

you get the good bacteria,

but the bad bacteria

could also come along for the ride.

- [roars]

- [microbes exclaim]

[Giulia] I would love it

if this was the perfect solution.


[Giulia] But all the gastroenterologists

I know are extremely cautious.

We could transplant the susceptibility

to all sorts of diseases.

So I ask people,

don't try and experiment on yourself

with some of these

more aggressive therapeutics.

[interviewer, in Japanese]

If a fecal transplant would give you back

your feelings of hunger and fullness,

would you do it?

Yes, if it could help me with my problems,

I would definitely try it.

I'll be the guinea pig.

[reporter 1, in English]

Someone else's feces could save your life.

[reporter 2] Fecal microbial...

I thought it was weird as hell,

but all this talk about poop

just kind of helped me understand

that pooping is normal.

It's everyday life.

It's something everybody goes through.

So why not talk about it?

I'll bring it up, and it's just

a random poop conversation. [laughs]

And when I hang up the phone,

I'm like, "Was that weird?"

Before it was,

but now it's like, "No, it's normal."

[pensive music playing]

[Jack] Fecal microbiome transplants

are quite a blunt tool.

We prefer to use a targeted approach,

like a precision probiotic

to improve health in a very specific way.

Most probiotics you can buy in the store

aren't really gastrointestinal bugs.

They're not designed

to live inside our guts.

They're normally bugs that you would find

associated with fermented milk or cheeses,

Lactobacillus organisms.

So they're not really designed

to take up residence.

It'd be like taking a houseplant,

and throwing it into the Amazon jungle,

and hoping beyond hope

that it would suddenly grow.

Modern medicine is very much

about treating the symptoms of a disease

rather than the underlying problems

that lead to it.

[John] Moving forward,

we want to have a smarter approach

to target the microbes in our gut

to actually have positive effects

and prevent many of the problems

from even starting.

[Tim] And so, the microbiome

is a game changer for medicine

because everyone

can be their own pharmacist

just by picking the right foods to eat.

[Rob] Inspired by our findings,

one of my colleagues decided

to start drinking smoothies

with 60 different kinds of plants a day.

And so what you can see is he's over here

in this red region with his regular diet.

But now,

he's moved over to this orange region

after eating the smoothies.

Took a few weeks, but he's really changed

to this completely different region

of the plot.

And by the time this ends,

which is a few months later,

he's now got a much more diverse

microbiome configuration

than he had at the beginning.

[director] But you haven't started

drinking these?

No, I tasted them. [chuckles]

I think this is one of those things

where you really need a collaboration

between scientists and, say, chefs

to not just get all the things

you want in there,

but to make it taste good as well.

Well, I have no idea

what that means, but that's cool.

Um, all right, let's get started.

[upbeat, whimsical music playing]

[Maya] Red and green lettuce, check.

Spinach, check. Purple kale, check.

Carrot-top greens, check.

Tomatoes, carrots,

zucchini, some avocados.

Radishes and dates

is a combination I have yet to try,

but maybe that'll be

my new macaron flavor, who knows?

How much smoothie does he eat?

The produce out here is about

what I eat in produce for, like, a week.

So one cup of water.

It does feel a bit like doing

a science fair experiment.

I'm going to throw in

a whole knob of ginger.

'Cause you can't get enough

of that ginger.

I mean, my initial reaction is,

who has time to do this?

We'll do a whole fig. I like figs.

I feel like the pink color is probably

extra good for you or something.


Oh, the potato. I'm also...

It's going to be so, like... Ugh!

First time for everything.

And a teaspoon.

I think that's it.


I think this is going to be

an incredibly interesting color.

[blender whirring]

Doesn't look bad.

I mean, it doesn't look great.

But I've drank grosser smoothies.

Smells real green.

[laughs] Oh, it's so thick.

It's got texture to it.


It's actually not bad.

It's fine. It tastes healthy.

[director] How would you make this better?

[Maya] Just, I mean, removing things

like the brussels sprouts

that will kind of, I think, overpower it.

Or if you're gonna do that,

just turn it into gazpacho.

I think a lot of the green smoothies

I eat would be so much better

if they embraced what it is

and added some salt

and, like, a little bit of vinegar,

and you're just drinking gazpacho.

It sounds great, but they just need

to season their smoothies, I guess.

[grunts] Mm-mmm.

It is kind of spectacular

what food can do to you,

and how what you eat

really does change your body.

What you eat today will impact

your microbiome tomorrow, within 24 hours.

My rule is ABC, always be counting.

Always be counting the number

of fruits and vegetables you're eating.

If you eat about 20 to 30

different fruits and vegetables each week,

I think you're good.

[Justin] If you want

some simple rules to follow,

think about what

the generations before us ate.

I mean, vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans,

even fermented foods that are teeming

with different types of microbes.

Fermented foods

were really the original probiotics.

You can just take vegetables, add salt,

and let them sit at room temperature,

and you're gonna have this delicious

fermented food in a couple days.

- Doing great.

- [Kimmie] You doing great?

- Uh-huh.

- [Kimmie] That's good, baby.

[boy] Is this what corn looks like

when it's just not corn?

[laughs] You mean when it's fresh

and not out of the bag? Yes.

There's corn in here.

[Kimmie] Yeah.

I was definitely confused in the past.

Learning the science

helped me to know that,

"Okay, you can't just say I'm on a diet."

You literally have to change

your lifestyle

and doing little things every day.

- [boy] Potatoes cut and rinsed.

- Cut and rinsed.

[Kimmie] My kids are super competitive.

I get them to help me.

I've made it like a cooking competition.

I get them to go

to the grocery store with me.

Then we get to cook.

So we've been spending

a lot more time together while doing it.

What are you doing?

[boy] I'm helping you.

I wanna be a chef, forever.

You wanna be a chef?

Yeah, I wanna cook every single day.

I want to be a chef.

I've experienced

how people talk about their body,

and what way of relationship

they have with it.

[Maya] Two eggs and two egg yolks.

[Giulia] There's not one super health food

that you can eat,

or this one advice that you can follow

so everything gets better.

It's really more about

building up a relationship to the gut.

[Kimmie] Y'all are doing

such a great job. High five.

Reconnecting can be done by science,

and can be done by knowledge,

but only also if you,

you know, get a feeling,

get a smart feeling for it.

Carbonara is kind of like

the complete realization

of the foods that I am most scared of.

[Giulia] Since I've gotten into

the topic of the gut,

I have become much more relaxed, actually.

I feel like I know how resilient

and strong and stable this organ can be

if I treat it right most of the time.

It's really more about

just listening to your body

to create a smarter body feeling.

[Kobi, in Japanese] Throughout my career,

what's influenced me

more than competitive eating

is the hot dog.

[Maggie] Okay, we're adding avocado,

shiso, shiitake, and garlic.

[in English] Yeah! It's so good.

[Kobi, in Japanese] I want

to create a healthier hot dog

by combining it

with healthy Japanese ingredients.

Mmm! This is good.

Very delicious!

This is something new. Unstoppable.

[Giulia, in English] You can eat something

and then see, how do I feel,

one and a half, two,

or two and a half hours later

when it's being taken up in my blood.

A piece of cake or fries, chips,

tastes great in the first second.

You'll be like, "Ah! More of these,"

but later on, you'll feel really tired,

or foggy, or whatever.

And a meal of, like, rice and vegetables

might not be as addictive,

but it'll make you feel more stable.

Or it might not with you. You can check.

[Maya laughing]

[Maya] It feels very validating

that I can allow myself

to enjoy food more.

The idea that I could have

a bowl with my husband

and not punish myself

by not eating the day after,

it would be nice. [laughs]

Mom, good job on the corn.

We're gonna do a cheers

towards Mom's good cooking.

- [Kimmie] All right.

- Yes!

[upbeat music playing]

I'm feeling myself

Never give up

Straight to the top...

[engine revving]

[Kimmie] The only thing that matters

is how you feel,

what you think, what you do.

Nobody else matters.

And maybe my body being different

is the best thing for me.

I'm flexin', I'm flexin'

[Giulia] Your body is really the expert,

and you should listen to it.

Knowing more about the gut

made me feel more proud of it.

[laughing] I guess I could even say

I have a feeling of loyalty

towards my gut,

and even my butthole. [laughing]

[pensive music playing]

[Giulia] Not everybody should talk

about their poop all the time,

especially if they don't feel like it.

But I think you should know

something about it.

[poop chittering]

[Giulia] There are, for example,

seven different consistencies of poop,

neatly described

in the Bristol Stool Scale.

Seven and six are a rather liquidy stool.

This can happen if digestion was disturbed

by something like an infection.

Four and three is what

you want to find in the toilet,

and is described as a sausage or snake,

smooth and soft.

[poop chittering]

[Giulia] And then we get

to the droppings of a goat,

and these are the areas of constipation.

So the consistency or shape

can be a very helpful solid information.

Like a little text message from your gut.

So you might as well sometimes

just turn around, check it out,

and then, you know, take the hint.

[music continues]
Post Reply